ASSIGNMENT代寫

新西蘭護理代寫 胰腺癌給藥系統

2020-05-25 02:21

本項目旨在結合多種策略設計一種有效的胰腺癌給藥系統。胰腺癌發生的遺傳和積累交替(1、2)。眾所周知,最常見的基因突變異常在胰腺腺癌是kras突變(3)。在70 - 90%的情況下k - ras基因點突變發生在基因,絕大多數發生在致癌基因的密碼子12 (4、5)。因此,人們正在努力確定Ras在正常細胞和病變細胞中的功能,并將Ras作為癌癥治療的靶點。KRAS作為一個GTPase被GTP激活,被GDP停用。活化的Kras結合并激活RAF家族激酶、BRAF、ARAF和RAF1(6)。活化的RAFs負責磷酸化和激活ERK1和ERK2激酶。隨后ERK磷酸化了細胞核和細胞質轉錄因子,如ELK1和c-JUN,導致細胞增殖。因此,導致K-ras基因活化的突變導致細胞不受控制的生長,最終導致癌癥的發生和擴散(7)。SiRNA將作為一種治療藥物來抑制KRAS的表達。小干擾rna介導的表達減少這種突變喀斯特的胰腺細胞可以減少細胞增殖從而減少腫瘤的生長(8、9)。因此,確保核將優先目標癌癥組織而不是正常組織,癌癥特異性抗體可用于定位的目的。癌癥的特征之一是細胞表面的某些蛋白受體過度表達。胰腺癌細胞具有高表達的表皮生長因子受體(EGFR),可作為抗胰腺癌細胞株的藥物傳遞靶點。因此,靶向部分(抗egfr抗體)將附著在脂質體表面,以靶向特定的癌細胞遞送。
新西蘭護理代寫 胰腺癌給藥系統
This project aims to design an effective drug delivery system for pancreatic cancer combining multiple strategies. Pancreatic cancer arises because of the genetic and accumulated alternations (1, 2). It is well known that the most common type of genetic mutation abnormality in pancreatic adenocarcinomas is the kras mutation (3). In 70-90% of the cases point mutation occur in k-ras gene, the majority occurring at codon 12 of oncogene (4,5). Therefore, efforts have been made to define the function of Ras in normal and diseased cells and to target ras for cancer therapy.KRAS being a GTPase is activated by GTP and deactivated by GDP. The activated Kras binds and thus activates the RAF family kinases, BRAF, ARAF and RAF1(6). Activated RAFs is responsible for phosphorylating and activating ERK1 and ERK2 kinases. Later ERK phosphorylates nuclear and cytoplasmic transcription factors like ELK1 and c-JUN which leads to cell proliferation. Therefore, the mutation which causes the activation of K-ras leads to uncontrolled cell growth which eventually leads to cancer development and spreading (7). SiRNA will be used as a therapeutic drug to suppress KRAS expression. This siRNA mediated reduction in the expression of mutated KRAS in the pancreatic cells can reduce cell proliferation thus reducing the tumor growth (8, 9). Thus, to make sure that siRNA will preferentially target the cancer tissues rather than the normal tissues, cancer-specific antibody can be used for targeting purpose. One of the trait seen in cancer is that there is an overexpression of certain protein receptors on the cell surface. Pancreatic cancer cells have high expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), which can be used as a drug delivery target against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Hence, the targeting moiety (anti-EGFR antibody) will be attached on the surface of liposomes to target specific cancer cell delivery.
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