ASSIGNMENT代寫

新西蘭教育學assignment代寫 澳洲教育

2020-08-20 05:03

教育越來越多地在新自由主義哲學的背景下運作。自20世紀70年代以來,新自由主義的意識形態已日益深入到大多數西方社會的結構中(Welch, 2013;瑪吉,2008)。新聞界傾向新自由主義的原因是最初在幾個國家獨立發生的一些關鍵事件。Robertson(2007)為這些事件提出了四個重要的“震中”。1979年,英國首相瑪格麗特•撒切爾(Margaret Thatcher)和1980年,美國總統羅納德•里根(Ronald Reagan)利用美聯儲(fed)改變的貨幣政策,試圖在國家和全球層面上打破工會的權力,放松對行業的管制,解放金融業。此外,中國正朝著使中國經濟更加自由的方向發展。通過這些影響,強調“社會應該由自由市場塑造”(科廷大學,2016)。這是新自由主義的一個關鍵目標。關于新自由主義有很多著述。這是一個寬泛的術語,并不是一個容易定義的概念(Boas & Gans-Morse, 2009)。Welch(2013)認為新自由主義是一種“社會政策由市場原則、私有化、自由貿易和放松管制以及個人主義(個人責任)主導”的哲學(p.193)。Mudge(2008)將新自由主義描述為“建立在單一的、基本的原則之上:個性化的、基于市場的競爭優于其他組織模式”(第706-707頁)。新自由主義的興起導致了澳大利亞社會特征的改變,從福利國家轉向競爭國家。Sandel(2012)和Beckert(2009)將西方社會描述為“從市場經濟到市場社會”的轉變(引用于Welch, 2013,第196頁)。政府、社會和私營部門之間的關系也得到了重塑。市場競爭和經濟原理現在是政府經濟和社會政策的中心(Davies & Bansal, 2007)。教育曾經受到福利國家政策的保護,不受市場競爭的影響。教育的功能是為了“公共利益”,平等地為所有人提供公平和機會(Welch, 2013)。在新自由主義下,教育已經成為市場的一部分。Peters(1999)認為教育現在被視為“服務和產品,就像其他任何東西一樣,可以在市場上交易”(引自Davies & Bansal, 2007年第254頁)。教育領域的新自由主義改革產生了根本性的結構調整,導致了針對特定弱勢群體的專業項目、資源和人員的流失。許多教育服務已經私有化(Welch, 2013)。企業管理教育的方式是一種重視競爭和經濟能力的方式。教育現在被視為一種商業,并在這種背景下運作。
新西蘭教育學assignment代寫 澳洲教育
 Education is increasing operating within the context of neoliberal philosophies. Since the 1970’s the ideology of neoliberalism has increasingly become embedded in the structure of most Western societies (Welch, 2013; Mudge, 2008). The press towards neoliberalism resulted from a number of key events that initially took place independently in several countries. Robertson (2007) refers to four significant ‘epicentres’ for these events. In 1979, the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and in 1980, the US President Ronald Reagan, drawing upon the US Federal Reserve’s changed monetary policy, sought to break the power of the unions, deregulate industry and free up finance at national and global levels. In addition, China moved towards making the Chinese economy more liberal. Through these influences the emphasis was that “society should be shaped by the free market” (Curtin University, 2016). This is a key goal of neoliberalism.There is much written about neoliberalism. It is a broad term and is not an easy concept to define (Boas & Gans-Morse, 2009). Welch (2013) considers neoliberalism is a philosophy “in which social policy is dominated by market principles, privatisation, free trade and deregulation, and individualism (individual responsibility)” (p.193). Mudge (2008) describes neoliberalism as being “built on a single, fundamental principle: the superiority of individualized, market-based competition over other modes of organization” (pp.706-707). The rise of neoliberalism has resulted in changing the characteristics of Australian society with a move away from the welfare state to a competition state. Sandel (2012) and Beckert (2009) describe Western society as having transitioned “from market economies to market societies” (cited in Welch, 2013, p.196). Relationships between government, society and the private sector have also been reshaped. Market-based competition and economic rationale is now at the centre of government economic and social policies (Davies & Bansal, 2007). Education was once protected from market competition by policies driven by the welfare state. The function of education was for the ‘public good’ and to equally provide equity and access to all (Welch, 2013). Under neoliberalism, education has become part of the market. Peters (1999) considers education is now seen as “services and products like any other, to be traded in the marketplace” (cited in Davies & Bansal, 2007 p.254). Neoliberal reforms in education have produced radical restructuring resulting in, for example, the loss of specialist programs, resources and staff for specific disadvantaged groups. Many education services have become privatised (Welch, 2013). The corporate manner in which education is managed is one that values competition and economic proficiency. Education is now viewed as a business and operates within this context.
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