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新西蘭環境學作業代寫 松海倡議

2020-06-13 21:59

松海倡議有兩個組成部分:第一是發展一個功能性、競爭性和高效率的農業體系(母田);第二,培育農業企業家和促進服務業,以提高他們的生產力,從而通過形成關鍵數量的年輕農業企業家和建立有利于在整個非洲大陸成功發展生產者的框架,產生滾雪球效應。松海模式將經濟的三個關鍵部門組成一個網絡。這是一種產業集群模式,一種高產自治的“綠色鄉村小鎮”模式。這種模式完美地結合了第一、第二和第三產業。網絡強調發展適當的創新技術和培訓。這種多樣化生產(混合農業和畜牧業)旨在促進不同環節之間的技術協同和互補,同時確保更好地促進環境。這種模式使農民能夠以更少的投入生產出更好、更多的產品。這只有在協同、互補、補充和負熵原則發揮作用的綜合生產系統中才能實現。有機農業的另一個廣為接受的制度方法是參與性保障制度(PGS)。PGS是在當地社區內建立的網絡,由農民、專家、公共部門官員、食品服務代理和消費者組成。這些網絡認證的生產者在利益相關者的積極參與下從事有機生產,并建立在信任、社會網絡和知識交流的基礎上。該體系規定了所有獲得認證的生產商必須遵守的標準,并由其他成員確保。因此,PGS既保證了創新的擴散,又是控制創新過程的手段。PGS最初是上世紀70年代在美國、日本和巴西有機農業領域的一項試驗,并已成功滲透到全球26個國家。在發展中國家,第三方認證是一件昂貴的事情,PGS被用來回應標準的制定和企業的確認。(Loconto等,2017)。如今,PGS已在不同的國家得到實施,并已經過定制,以適應它們的需要,并在現有的系統和機制中加以適應。
新西蘭環境學作業代寫 松海倡議
 Agossou et al. (undated) reported that the Songhai initiative had two components: the first was the development of a functional, competitive and efficient agricultural system (parent farm); and the second the incubation of agro-entrepreneurs and promotion of services to increase their productivity, thereby creating a snowball effect through the formation of a critical mass of young  agricultural entrepreneurs and the creation of a framework conducive to the successful development of producers across the African continent. The Songhai model incorporated three key sectors of the economy into a network. It was an industrial cluster model, a model of a productive and autonomous “green rural town”. The model perfectly integrated primary, secondary and tertiary productions. The network stressed on the development of appropriate innovative technologies and training. This diversified production (mixed farming and stock farming) was designed to facilitate technical synergies and complementarities between the different links while ensuring better promotion of the environment. This model enables farmers to produce better and more with less. This is only possible because of an integrated system of production where the principles of synergy, complementarity, supplementary, and negative entropy are in play. Another widely accepted example of institutional approach towards organic agriculture is Partcipatory Guarantee System (PGS). PGS were networks created within local communities and consist of farmers, experts, public sector officials, food service agents, and consumers. These networks certified producers engage in organic production based on active participation of stakeholders and were built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange. The system sets standards to be followed by all the certified producers and ensured by the fellow members. PGS therefore both ensure the diffusion of the innovation and are the means through which the innovation process is governed. PGS began as an experiment in 1970s in the field of organic agriculture in the US, Japan and Brazil and has successfully percolated to 26 countries around the world. In developing countries, where third party certification is a costly affair, PGS was adopted in response to standard setting and confirmation by corporates. (Loconto et al., 2017). Today PGS is being practiced in different countries and has been customized to suit their needs and accommodate within the existing system and machinery. 
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